School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology

The history of neuroscience

Further information

  • Neuroscience at undergraduate level
  • Honours neuroscience

Many of the discoveries for which Nobel Prizes in physiology or medicine have been won have advanced our understanding of neuroscience.

  1. 2000s
  2. 1990s
  3. 1980s
  4. 1970s
  5. 1960s
  6. 1940s
  7. 1930s
  8. 1910s
  9. 1900s

2000s

2004
Richard Axel and Linda Buck for their discoveries of olfactory receptors and the organization of the olfactory system.
2003
Paul C. Lauterbur, and Sir Peter Mansfield for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging.
2002
Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.
2000
Carlsson, Greengard and Kandel-for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.

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1990s

1997
Stanley B. Prusiner for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection.
1994
Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.
1992
Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.
1991
Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann - for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells.

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1980s

1981
Roger W. Sperry, for his discoveries concerning the functional specialisation of the cerebral hemispheres.
David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel - describe the processing of visual information by the brain.

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1970s

1979
Alan M. Cormack and Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield - for the development of computer-assisted tomography.
1977
Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally jointly with Rosalyn Yakow - for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain.
1970
Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod - for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.

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1960s

1967
Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.
1963
Sir John Carew Eccles, Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley - for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.
1961
Georg von Bekesy - for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea.

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1940s

1949
Walter Rudolf Hess - for his discovery of the functional organisation of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs.
Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz - for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses.
1944
Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser - describe highly specific functions of single nerve fibres.

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1930s

1936
Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi - for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.
1932
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Lord (Edgar Douglas) Adrian - for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons.

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1910s

1914
Robert Bárány - demonstrates the physiology and pathology of the inner ear.
1911
Allvar Gullstrant - for his work on the dioptrics of the eye.

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1900s

1906
Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramony Cajal - in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system.

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Last updated:
Wednesday, 8 February, 2012 1:27 PM

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